Planetary science of the Solar System to date retains a number of the obscurities and puzzles on the properties and the origins of its some objects. Author's findings on this point are the essence of this brief book. It constitutes collected recent manuscripts of author as well as some appropriate fragments of his previous book "Numerical harmony in the Solar System" published at Russia in 2009. In Part I both known from arXiv.org and fully new his works collected. Part II contains some brief sections of his foregoing book. Appendixes 1 and 2 include the previously unknown harmonic relation of the Sun to other stars and author's planetary classification of the Solar System in terms of the defunct planets. From highly specialized astronomy books that differs in the width of coverage of involved problems. In context of a harmonic associations author look at various issues relevant to the past and present of planetary objects of the Solar System such as terrestrial and giant planets, their satellites, some the main belt asteroids, the largest trans-neptunian objects (dwarf planets) as well as Chelyabinsk meteor. In so doing contrary to similar books there is discussed such more clear to general astronomical public and students the physical properties of the families of the objects of the Solar System as their sizes, mass and density, than, for example, the details of the surface, atmosphere or photometry data of any one of them. As opposed to usual illustrated present popular astronomy books in this one in first much new simple mathematical relationships and numerical data relevant to such physical properties of the present and past objects of the Solar System in connection to their orbital characteristics are included. The book basically is intended for the students, educators, and specialists m astronomy and especially in planetary science but as well is accessible to any who interested in the Solar System and is aware of elementary algebra and who would like to obtain a new information and some ideas on the past and the present of the celestial objects of the Solar System that differ in significant ways from commonly accepted views on these points.